CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS.--South Europe, 1640. This is a very

vigorous-growing species, with a wide, spreading head of rather

upright-growing branches. The flowers are showy and the fruit large and

of a pleasing red colour.

C. AZAROLUS ARONIA (_syn C. Aronia_).--Aronia Thorn. South Europe,

1810. This tree attains to a height of 20 feet, has deeply lobed leaves

that are wedge-shaped at the base, and slightly pub
scent on the under

sides. The flowers, which usually are at their best in June, are white

and showy, and succeeded by large yellow fruit. Generally the Aronia

Thorn forms a rather upright and branchy specimen of neat proportions,

and when studded with its milk-white flowers may be included amongst

the most distinct and ornamental of the family.

C. COCCINEA.--Scarlet-fruited Thorn. North America, 1683. If only for

its lovely white flowers, with bright, pinky anthers, it is well worthy

of a place even in a selection of ornamental flowering trees and

shrubs. It is, however, rendered doubly valuable in that the

cordate-ovate leaves turn of a warm brick colour in the autumn, while

the fruit, and which is usually produced abundantly, is of the

brightest red.

C. COCCINEA MACRANTHA.--North America, 1819. This bears some resemblance

to the Cockspur Thorn, but has very long, curved spines--longer, perhaps,

than those of any other species.

C. CORDATA is one of the latest flowering species, in which respect it

is even more hardy than the well-known C. tanace-tifolia. It forms a

small compact tree, of neat and regular outline, with dark green

shining leaves, and berries about the same size as those of the common

species, and deep red.

C. CRUS-GALLI.--Cockspur Thorn. North America, 1691. This has large

and showy white flowers that are succeeded by deep red berries. It is

readily distinguished by the long, curved spines with which the whole

tree is beset. Of this species there are numerous worthy forms,

including C. Crus-galli Carrierii, which opens at first white, and

then turns a showy flesh colour; C. Crus-galli Layi, C. Crus-galli

splendens, C. Crus-galli prunifolia, C. Crus-galli pyracanthifolia, and

C. Crus-galli salicifolia, all forms of great beauty--whether for their

foliage, or beautiful and usually plentifully-produced flowers.

C. DOUGLASII.--North America, 1830. This is peculiar in having dark

purple or almost black fruit. It is of stout growth, often reaching to

20 feet in height, and belongs to the early-flowering section.

C. NIGRA (_syn C. Celsiana_).--A tree 20 feet high, with stout branches,

and downy, spineless shoots. Leaves large, ovate-acute, deeply incised,

glossy green above and downy beneath. Flowers large and fragrant, pure

white, and produced in close heads in June. Fruit large, oval, downy,

and yellow when fully ripe. A native of Sicily, and known under the

names of C. incisa and C. Leeana. This species must not be confused

with a variety of our common Thorn bearing a similar name.

C. OXYACANTHA.--Common Hawthorn. This is, perhaps, the most ornamental

species in cultivation, and certainly the commonest. The common wild

species needs no description, the fragrant flowers varying in colour

from pure white to pink, being produced in the richest profusion. Under

cultivation, however, it has produced some very distinct and desirable

forms, far superior to the parent, including amongst others those with

double-white, pink, and scarlet flowers.

C. OXYACANTHA PUNICEA flore-pleno (Paul's double-scarlet Thorn), is one

of, if not the handsomest variety, with large double flowers that are

of the richest crimson. Other good flowering kinds include C.

Oxyacantha praecox (Glastonbury Thorn); C. Oxyacantha Oliveriana; C.

Oxyacantha punicea, with deep scarlet flowers; C. Oxyacantha rosea,

rose-coloured and abundantly-produced flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis

aureis, with yellow fruit; C. Oxyacantha laciniata, cut leaves; C.

Oxyacantha multiplex, double-white flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis

argenteis, having silvery-variegated leaves: C. Oxyacantha pendula, of

semi-weeping habit; C. Oxyacantha stricta, with an upright and stiff

habit of growth; C. Oxyacantha Leeana, a good form; and C. Oxyacantha


C. PARVIFOLIA.--North America, 1704. This is a miniature Thorn, of slow

growth, with leaves about an inch long, and solitary pure-white flowers

of large size. The flowers open late in the season, and are succeeded

by yellowish-green fruit.

C. PYRACANTHA.--Fiery Thorn. South Europe, 1629. This is a very

distinct species, with lanceolate serrated leaves, and pinkish or

nearly white flowers. The berries of this species are, however, the

principal attraction, being orange-scarlet, and produced in dense

clusters. C. Pyracantha crenulata and C. Pyracantha Lelandi are worthy

varieties of the above, the latter especially being one of the most

ornamental-berried shrubs in cultivation.

C. TANACETIFOLIA.--Tansy-leaved Thorn. Greece, 1789. This is a very

late-flowering species, and remarkable for its Tansy-like foliage. It

is of unusually free growth, and in almost any class of soil, and is

undoubtedly, in so far at least as neatly divided leaves and wealth of

fruit are concerned, one of the most distinct and desirable species of


Other good species and varieties that may just be mentioned as being

worthy of cultivation are C. apiifolia, C. Crus-galli horrida, C.

orientalis, and C. tomentosum (_syn C. punctata_). To a lesser or

greater extent, the various species and varieties of Thorn are of great

value for the wealth and beauty of flowers they produce, but the above

are, perhaps, the most desirable in that particular respect. They are

all of free growth, and, except in waterlogged soils, thrive well and

flower freely.