Red Pine Norway Pine

=Habitat and Range.=--In poor soils: sandy plains, dry woods.

Newfoundland and New Brunswick, throughout Quebec and Ontario, to

the southern end of Lake Winnipeg.

Maine,--common, plains, Brunswick (Cumberland county); woods, Bristol

(Lincoln county); from Amherst (western part of Hancock county) and

Clifton (southeastern part of Penobscot county) northward just east of

the Penobsco
river the predominant tree, generally on dry ridges and

eskers, but in Greenbush and Passadumkeag growing abundantly on peat

bogs with black spruce; hillsides and lower mountains about Moosehead,

scattered; New Hampshire,--ranges with the pitch pine as far north as

the White mountains, but is less common, usually in groves of a few to

several hundred acres in extent; Vermont,--less common than P. Strobus

or P. rigida, but not rare; Massachusetts,--still more local, in

stations widely separated, single trees or small groups; Rhode

Island,--occasional; Connecticut,--not reported.

South to Pennsylvania; west through Michigan and Wisconsin to


=Habit.=--The most beautiful of the New England pines, 50-75 feet high,

with a diameter of 2-3 feet at the ground; reaching in Maine a height of

100 feet and upwards; trunk straight, scarcely tapering; branches low,

stout, horizontal or scarcely declined, forming a broad-based, rounded

or conical head of great beauty when young, becoming more or less

irregular with age; foliage of a rich dark green, in long dense tufts at

the ends of the branches.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk reddish-brown, in old trees marked by flat ridges

which separate on the surface into thin, flat, loose scales; branchlets

rough with persistent bases of leaf buds; season's shoots stout,

orange-brown, smooth.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leading branch-buds conical, about 3/4

inch long, tapering to a sharp point, reddish-brown, invested with

rather loose scales.

Foliage leaves in twos, from close, elongated, persistent, and

conspicuous sheaths, about 6 inches long, dark green, needle-shaped,

straight, sharply and stiffly pointed, the outer surface round and the

inner flattish, both surfaces marked by lines of minute pale dots.

=Inflorescence.=--Sterile flowers clustered at the base of the season's

shoots, oblong, 1/2-3/4 inch long: fertile flowers single or few, at the

ends of the season's shoots.

=Fruit.=--Cones near extremity of shoot, at right angles to the stem,

maturing the second year, 1-3 inches long, ovate to oblong conical; when

opened broadly oval or roundish; scales not hooked or pointed, thickened

at the apex.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; a tall, dark-foliaged

evergreen, for which there is no substitute; grows rapidly in all

well-drained soils and in exposed inland or seashore situations; seldom

disfigured by insects or disease; difficult to transplant and not common

in nurseries. Propagated from seed.

1. Branch with sterile flowers.

2. Stamen, front view.

3. Stamen, top view.

4. Branch with fertile flowers and one-year-old cones.

5. Bract and ovuliferous scale, outer side.

6. Ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.

7. Fruiting branch showing cones of three different seasons.

8. Seeds with cone-scale.

9, 10. Cross-sections of leaves.

= Pinus sylvestris, L.=