Scrub Pine Gray Pine Spruce Pine Jack Pine

=Habitat and Range.=--Sterile, sandy soil: lowlands, boggy plains, rocky


Nova Scotia, northwesterly to the Athabasca river, and northerly

down the Mackenzie to the Arctic circle.

Maine,--Traveller mountain and Grand lake (G. L. Goodale); Beal's island

on Washington county coast, Harrington, Orland, and Cape Rosier (C. G.

Atkins); Schoodic peninsula in Gouldsboro, a forest 3
feet high (F. M.

Day, E. L. Rand, et al.); Flagstaff (Miss Kate Furbush); east branch

of Penobscot (Mrs. Haines); the Forks (Miss Fanny E. Hoyt); Lake Umbagog

(Wm. Brewster); New Hampshire,--around the shores of Lake Umbagog, on

points extending into the lake, rare (Wm. Brewster in lit., 1899);

Welch mountains (Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, XVIII, 150); Vermont,--rare,

but few trees at each station; Monkton in Addison county (R. E.

Robinson); Fairfax, Franklin county (Bates); Starkesboro (Pringle).

West through northern New York, northern Illinois, and Michigan to


=Habit.=--Usually a low tree, 15-30 feet high and 6-8 inches in diameter

at the ground, but under favorable conditions, as upon the wooded points

and islands of Lake Umbagog, attaining a height of 50-60 feet, with a

diameter of 10-15 inches. Extremely variable in habit. In thin soils and

upon bleak sites the trunk is for the most part crooked and twisted, the

head scrubby, stunted, and variously distorted, resembling in shape and

proportions the pitch pine under similar conditions. In deeper soils,

and in situations protected from the winds, the stem is erect, slender,

and tapering, surmounted by a stately head with long, flexible branches,

scarcely less regular in outline than the spruce. Foliage

yellowish-green, bunched at the ends of the branchlets.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees dark brown, rounded-ridged,

rough-scaly at the surface; branchlets dark purplish-brown, rough with

the persistent bases of the fallen leaves; season's shoots

yellowish-green, turning to reddish-brown.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Branch-buds light brown, ovate, apex acute or

rounded, usually enclosed in resin.

Leaves in twos, divergent from a short close sheath, about 1 inch in

length and scarcely 1/12 inch in width, yellowish-green, numerous,

stiff, curved or twisted, cross-section showing two fibrovascular

bundles; outline narrowly linear; apex sharp-pointed; outer surface

convex, inner concave or flat.

=Inflorescence.=--June. Sterile flowers at the base of the season's

shoots, clustered, oblong-rounded: fertile flowers along the sides or

about the terminal buds of the season's shoots, single, in twos or in

clusters; bracts ovate, roundish, purplish.

=Fruit.=--Cones often numerous, 1-2 inches long, pointing in the general

direction of the twig on which they grow, frequently curved at the tip,

whitish-yellow when young, and brown at maturity; scales when mature

without prickles, thickened at the apex; outline very irregular but in

general oblong-conical. The open cones, which are usually much

distorted, with scales at base closed, have a similar outline.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; slow growing and hard to

transplant; useful in poor soil; seldom offered by nurserymen or

collectors. Propagated from seed.

1. Branch with sterile flowers.

2. Stamen, front view.

3. Stamen, top view.

4. Branch with fertile flowers.

5. Ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.

6. Fruiting branch.

7. Open cone.

8, 9. Variant leaves.

10, 11. Cross-sections of leaves.

Pinus resinosa, Ait.