White Pine

=Habitat and Range.=--In fertile soils; moist woodlands or dry uplands.

Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, through Quebec and Ontario, to Lake


New England,--common, from the vicinity of the seacoast to altitudes of

2500 feet, forming extensive forests.

South along the mountains to Georgia, ascending to 2500 feet in the

Adirondacks and to 4300 in North C
rolina; west to Minnesota and


=Habit.=--The tallest tree and the stateliest conifer of the New England

forest, ordinarily from 50 to 80 feet high and 2-4 feet in diameter at

the ground, but in northern New England, where patches of the primeval

forest still remain, attaining a diameter of 3-7 feet and a height

ranging from 100 to 150 feet, rising in sombre majesty far above its

deciduous neighbors; trunk straight, tapering very gradually; branches

nearly horizontal, wide-spreading, in young trees in whorls usually of

five, the whorls becoming more or less indistinct in old trees;

branchlets and season's shoots slender; head cone-shaped, broad at the

base, clothed with soft, delicate, bluish-green foliage; roots running

horizontally near the surface, taking firm hold in rocky situations,

extremely durable when exposed.

=Bark.=--On trunks of old trees thick, shallow-channeled, broad-ridged;

on stems of young trees and upon branches smooth, greenish; season's

shoots at first rusty-scurfy or puberulent, in late autumn becoming

smooth and light russet brown.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leading branch-buds 1/4-1/2 inch long, oblong

or ovate-oblong, sharp-pointed; scales yellowish-brown.

Foliage leaves in clusters of five, slender, 3-5 inches long, soft

bluish-green, needle-shaped, 3-sided, mucronate, each with a single

fibrovascular bundle, sessile.

=Inflorescence.=--June. Sterile flowers at the base of the season's

shoots, in clusters, each flower about one inch long, oval, light brown;

stamens numerous; connectives scale-like: fertile flowers near the

terminal bud of the season's shoots, long-stalked, cylindrical; scales


=Fruit.=--Cones, 4-6 inches long, short-stalked, narrow-cylindrical,

often curved, finally pendent, green, maturing the second year; scales

rather loose, scarcely thickened at the apex, not spiny; seeds winged,


=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; free from disease;

grows well in almost any soil, but prefers a light fertile loam; in open

ground retains its lower branches for many years. Good plants, grown

from seed, are usually readily obtainable in nurseries; small collected

plants from open ground can be moved in sods with little risk.

Several horticultural forms are occasionally cultivated which are

distinguished by variations in foliage, trailing branches, dense and

rounded heads, and dwarfed or cylindrical habits of growth.


1. Branch with sterile flowers.

2. Stamen.

3. Branch with fertile flowers.

4. Bract and ovuliferous scale, outer side.

5. Ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.

6. Branch with cones.

7. Cross-section of leaf.

Pinus rigida, Mill.