Arbor-vitae White Cedar Cedar

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, swampy lands, rocky borders of rivers and


Southern Labrador to Nova Scotia; west to Manitoba.

Maine,--throughout the state; most abundant in the central and northern

portions, forming extensive areas known as cedar swamps; sometimes

bordering a growth of black spruce at a lower level; New

Hampshire,--mostly confined to the upper part of Coos county,
disappearing at the White river narrows near Hanover; seen only in

isolated localities south of the White mountains; Vermont,--common in

swamps at levels below 1000 feet; Massachusetts,--Berkshire county;

occasional in the northern sections of the Connecticut river valley;

Rhode Island,--not reported; Connecticut,--East Hartford (J. N. Bishop).

South along the mountains to North Carolina and East Tennessee;

west to Minnesota.

=Habit.=--Ordinarily 25-50 feet high, with a trunk diameter of 1-2 feet,

in northern Maine occasionally 60-70 feet in height, with a diameter of

3-5 feet; trunk stout, more or less buttressed in old trees, tapering

rapidly, often divided, inclined or twisted, ramifying for the most part

near the ground, forming a dense head, rather small for the size of the

trunk; branches irregularly disposed and nearly horizontal, the lower

often much declined; branchlets many, the flat spray disposed in

fan-shaped planes at different angles; foliage bright, often

interspersed here and there with yellow, faded leaves.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees a dead ash-gray, striate with broad

and flat ridges, often conspicuously spirally twisted, shreddy at the

edge; young stems and large branches reddish-brown, more or less striate

and shreddy; branchlets ultimately smooth, shining, reddish-brown,

marked by raised scars; season's twigs invested with leaves.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leaf-buds naked, minute. Leaves in opposite

pairs, 4-ranked, closely adherent to the branchlet and completely

covering it, keeled in the side pairs and flat in the others,

scale-like, ovate (in seedlings needle-shaped), obtuse or pointed at the

apex, glandular upon the back, exhaling when bruised a strong aromatic


=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Flowers terminal, dark reddish-brown;

sterile and fertile, usually on the same plant, rarely on separate

plants; anthers opposite; filaments short; ovuliferous scales opposite,

with slight projections near the base, usually 2-ovuled.

=Fruit.=--Cones, terminal on short branchlets, spreading or recurved,

about 1/2 inch long, reddish-brown, loose-scaled, opening to the base at

maturity; persistent through the first winter; scales 6-12, dry, oblong,

not shield-shaped, not pointed; margin entire or nearly so; seeds winged

all round.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; adapts itself to all soils

and exposures, but prefers moist locations; grows slowly. Young trees

have a narrowly conical outline, which spreads out at the base with age;

retains its lower branches in open places, and is especially useful for

hedges or narrow evergreen screens; little affected by insects; often

disfigured, however, by dead branches and discolored leaves; is

transplanted readily, and can be obtained in any quantity from

nurserymen and collectors. The horticultural forms in cultivation range

from thick, low, spreading tufts, through very dwarf, round, oval or

conical forms, to tall, narrow, pyramidal varieties. Some have all the

foliage tinged bright yellow, cream, or white; others have variegated

foliage; another form has drooping branches. The bright summer foliage

turns to a brownish color in winter. It is propagated from the seed and

its horticultural forms from cuttings and layers.

1. Flowering branch with the preceding year's fruit.

2. Branch.

3. Sterile flower.

4. Stamen.

5. Fertile flower.

6. Scale with ovules.

=Cupressus thyoides, L.=

Chamaecyparis sphaeroidea, Spach. Chamaecyparis thyoides, B. S. P.