White Willow





=Habitat and Range.=--Low, moist grounds; along streams. Probably

indigenous throughout Europe, northern Africa, and Asia as far south as

northwestern India. Extensively introduced in America, and often

spontaneous over large areas.



New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Ontario.



New England,--sparingly throughout.



South to Delaware; extensively introduced in the western states.



=Habit.=--A large tree, 50-80 feet in height; trunk usually rather short

and 2-7 feet in diameter; head large, not as broad-spreading as that of

S. fragilis; branches numerous, mostly ascending.



=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees gray and coarsely ridged, in young

trees smooth; twigs smooth, olive.



=Leaves.=--Leaves simple, alternate, 2-4 inches long, silky-hairy on

both sides when young, when old still retaining more or less pubescence,

especially on the paler under surface; outline narrowly lanceolate or

elliptic-lanceolate, glandular-serrate, tapering to a long pointed apex

and to an acute base; leafstalk short, usually without glands; stipules

ovate-lanceolate, soon falling.



=Note.=--Var. vitellina, Koch., by far the most common form of this

willow; mature leaves glabrous above; twigs yellow. Var. caerulea,

Koch.; mature leaves bluish-green, glabrous above, glaucous beneath;

twigs olive.



=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Catkins appearing with the leaves,

slender, erect, stalked; scales linear; stamens 2; filaments distinct,

hairy below the middle; stigma nearly sessile, deeply cleft; capsule

glabrous, sessile or nearly so.



=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows best in

moist localities; extensively cultivated to bind the soil along the

banks of streams. Easily propagated from slips.





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