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FORESTRY AND THE NEED OF IT.
"Experience as well as common sense teaches us that the selecting of the species and the mere planting of the same is not a guarantee of successful forestry."
In this country we have heretofore not made any distinction between forests and woodlands, while in Europe, and more especially in those countries in which forestry has reached a high state of development, the distinction is clearly defined. Prof. Rossmässler, in speaking of the difference between forest and woodland (Forst und Wald), says: "Every forest is also a woodland, but not every woodland, be it ever so large, is a forest. It is the regular cultivation and economical management which turns a woodland into a forest."
This difference between forests and woodland is also indicated by the terms forester and woodman; the former term being applied to the man who advocates the perpetuation of woodland in accordance with the teachings and principles of forestry, and the latter to the man whose profession is that of felling trees.
In this meaning of the term, we, in this country, have really no forests, but woodlands only. To turn these woodlands into forests, and to plant forests, where for climatic and other considerations they are needed, is the aim and object of the advocates of forestry.
The forester, it will be seen, has a distinct mission, which is to perpetuate the forests so indispensable to civilized life, and to produce at a minimum expense, from a given piece of ground, the greatest amount of forest products.
As our forests decrease in extent and deteriorate in quality, and as, with the increase of our population, the demands upon forest products of all kinds become greater, the necessity of a rational system of forestry, and the need of educated foresters becomes more apparent every day. We should, moreover, constantly bear in mind that, while there are trees, as the catalpa, the ash and the hickory, which will attain merchantable size in forty or fifty years from the seed, there are others such as the pine and the tulip-poplar, which require for reaching the necessary dimensions a period of from sixty to eighty years; and still others, such as the oaks and the black walnut, for the full development of which about a hundred and fifty years are required. Can we, in view of this, still be in doubt as to whether or not the time has come when we should earnestly consider the question?
Hon. Adolph Lené,