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White Cedar Cedar

=Habitat and Range.=--In deep swamps and marshes, which it often fills

to the exclusion of other trees, mostly near the seacoast.

Cape Breton island and near Halifax, Nova Scotia, perhaps

introduced in both.

Maine,--reported from the southern part of York county; New

Hampshire,--limited to Rockingham county near the coast; Vermont,--no

station known; Massachusetts,--occasional in central and eastern

sections, very common in the southeast; Rhode Island,--common;

Connecticut,--occasional in peat swamps.

Southward, coast region to Florida and west to Mississippi.

=Habit.=--20-50 feet high and 1-2 feet in diameter at the ground,

reaching in the southern states an altitude of 90 and a diameter of 4

feet; trunk straight, tapering slowly, throwing out nearly horizontal,

slender branches, forming a narrow, conical head often of great elegance

and lightness; foliage light brownish-green; strong-scented; spray flat

in planes disposed at different angles; wood permanently aromatic.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk thick, reddish, fibrous, shreddy, separating into

thin scales, becoming more or less furrowed in old trees; branches

reddish-brown; fine scaled; branches after fall of leaves, in the third

or fourth year, smooth, purplish-brown; season's shoots at first


=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leaf-buds naked, minute. Leaves mostly

opposite, 4-ranked, adherent to the branchlet and completely covering

it; keeled in the side pairs and slightly convex in the others, dull

green, pointed at apex or triangular awl-shaped, mostly with a minute

roundish gland upon the back.

=Inflorescence.=--April. Flowers terminal, sterile and fertile, usually

on the same plant, rarely on separate plants, fertile on short

branchlets: sterile, globular or oblong, anthers opposite, filaments

shield-shaped: fertile, oblong or globular; ovuliferous scales opposite,

slightly spreading at top, dark reddish-brown.

=Fruit.=--Cones, variously placed, 1/2 inch in diameter, roundish,

purplish-brown, opening towards the center, never to the base; scales

shield-shaped, woody; seeds several under each scale, winged.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England, growing best in

the southern sections. Young trees are graceful and attractive, but soon

become thin and lose their lower branches; valued chiefly in landscape

planting for covering low and boggy places where other trees do not

succeed as well. Seldom for sale in nurseries, but easily procured from

collectors. Several unimportant horticultural forms are grown.

1. Branch with flowers.

2. Sterile flower.

3. Stamen, back view.

4. Stamen, front view.

5. Fertile flower.

6. Ovuliferous scale with ovules.

7. Fruiting-branch.

8. Fruit.

9. Branch.

=Juniperus Virginiana, L.=

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