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Tree Terms

Abortive.= Defective or barren, through non-development of a part.

Acuminate.= Long-pointed.

Acute.= Ending with a sharp but not prolonged point.

Adherent.= Growing fast to; adnate anther, attached for its whole

length to the ovary.

Adnate.= Essentially same as adherent, with the added idea of

congenital adhesion.

Aggregate fruits.= Formed by crowding together all the carpels of the

same flower; as in the blackberry.

Ament.= Name given to such flower-clusters as those of the willow,

birch, poplar, etc.

Anther.= The part of the stamen which bears the pollen.

Appressed.= Lying close against another organ.

Ascending.= Rising upward, or obliquely upward.

Axil.= Angle formed on the upper side between the leaf stem or flower

stem and the branch from which it springs.

Bract.= Reduced leaf subtending a flower or flower-cluster.

Branches, primary.= The leading or main branches thrown out directly

from the trunk, giving a general shape to the head.

Branches, secondary.= Never directly from the trunk but from other


Buttressed.= Supported against strain in any direction by a conspicuous

ridge-like enlargement of the trunk vertically to the roots. Several of

these buttresses often give a tree a square appearance.

Caducous.= Dropping off very early after development.

Calyx.= The outer set of the leaves of the flower.

Campanulate.= Bell-shaped.

Capitate.= Head-shaped or collected in a head.

Capsule.= A dry compound fruit.

Carpel.= A simple pistil.

Catkin.= See ament.

Ciliate.= Margin with hairs or bristles.

Coherent.= One organ uniting with another.

Compound.= See leaf, ovary, etc.

Connate.= Similar organs, more or less grown together.

Connective.= The part of the anther connecting its two cells.

Coriaceous.= Thick, leathery in texture.

Corolla.= Leaves of the flower within the calyx.

Corymb.= That sort of flower-cluster in which the flower stems arranged

along the central axis elongate, forming a broad convex or level top,

the flowers opening successively from the outer edge towards the center.

Crenate.= Edge with rounded teeth.

Crenulate.= Edge with small rounded teeth.

Cyme.= Flat-topped or convex flower-cluster, the central flower opening

first; blossoming outward.

Deciduous.= Falling off, as leaves in autumn, or calyx and corolla

before fruit grows.

Declining.= Bent downwards.

Decurrent.= Leaves prolonged on the stem beneath the insertion:

branchlets springing out beneath the point of furcation, as the

feathering along the trunk of elms, etc.

Dentate.= With teeth pointing outwards.

Disk.= Central part of a head of flowers; fleshy expansion of the

receptacle of a flower; any rounded, flat surface.

Drupe.= A stone fruit; soft externally with a stone at the center, as

the cherry and peach.

Erose.= Eroded, as if gnawed.

Exserted.= Protruding, projecting out of.

Falcate.= Scythe-shaped.

Fertile.= Flowers containing the pistil, capable of producing fruit.

Anthers in such blossoms, if any, are generally abortive.

Fibrovascular.= Bundle or tissue, formed of wood fibers, ducts, etc.

Filament.= Part of stamen supporting anther.

Fungus.= A division of cryptogamous plants, including mushrooms, etc.

Furcation.= Branching.

Glabrous.= Smooth without hairiness or roughness.

Glandular.= Bearing glands or appendages having the appearance of


Glaucous.= Covered with a bloom: bluish hoary.

Globose.= Spherical or nearly so.

Habit.= The general appearance of a plant.

Habitat.= The place where a plant naturally grows, as in swamps, in

water, upon dry hillsides, etc.

Hybrid.= A cross between two species.

Imbricated.= Overlapping.

Inflorescence.= Mode of disposition of flowers; sometimes applied to

the flower-cluster itself.

Involucre.= Bracts subtending a flower or a cluster of flowers.

Keeled.= Having a central dorsal ridge like the keel of a boat.

Key.= A winged fruit; a samara.

Lacerate.= Irregularly cleft, as if torn.

Lanceolate.= Lance-shaped, broadest above the base, gradually narrowing

to the apex.

Leaf.= Consisting when botanically complete of a blade, usually flat, a

footstalk and two appendages at base of the footstalk; often consisting

of blade only.

Leaf, compound.= Having two to many distinct blades on a common

leafstalk or rachis. These blades may be sessile or have leafstalks of

their own.

Leaf, pinnately compound.= With the leaflets arranged along the sides

of the rachis.

Leaf, palmately compound.= With leaflets all standing on summit of


Leaf-cushions.= Organs resembling persistent decurrent footstalks, upon

which leaves of spruces, etc., stand; sterigmata.

Leaf-scar.= The scar left on the twig where the petiole was attached.

Lenticel.= Externally appearing upon the bark as spots, warts, and

perpendicular or transverse lines.

Linear.= Long and narrow with sides nearly parallel.

Monopetalous.= Having petals more or less united.

Mucronate.= Abruptly tipped with a small, sharp point.

Nerved.= Having prominent unbranched ribs or veins.

Obcordate.= Inversely heart-shaped.

Obovate.= Ovate with the broader end towards the apex.

Obtuse.= Blunt or rounded at the end.

Orbicular.= Having a circular or nearly circular outline.

Ovary.= The part of the pistil containing the ovules.

Ovoid.= A solid with an oval or ovate outline.

Ovuliferous.= Bearing ovules.

Panicle.= General term for any loose and irregular flower-cluster,

commonly of the racemose type, with pedicellate flowers.

Pedicel.= The stalk of a single flower in the ultimate divisions of an


Peduncle.= The stem of a solitary flower or of a cluster.

Perfect.= Having both pistils and stamens.

Perianth.= The floral envelope consisting of calyx, corolla, or both.

Persistent.= Not falling for a long time.

Petal.= A division of the corolla.

Petiole.= The stalk of a leaf.

Petiolule.= The stalk of a leaflet in a compound leaf.

Pistil.= The seed-bearing organ of the flower.

Pistillate.= Provided with pistils; usually applied to flowers without


Pollen.= The fertilizing grains contained in the anthers.

Puberulent.= Minutely pubescent.

Pubescent.= Covered with short soft or downy hairs.

Raceme.= A simple cluster of pediceled flowers upon a common axis.

Rachis.= The main axis of a compound leaf, of a raceme or of a spike.

Ramification.= Branching.

Range.= The geographical extent and limits of a species.

Reflexed.= Turned backward.

Reticulated.= Netted; in the form of a network.

Revolute.= Rolled backward from the margin or apex.

Samara.= Key fruit; winged fruit, like that of the ash or maple.

Scarf-bark.= The thin, outermost layer which often peels off.

Segment.= One of the divisions into which a plane organ, such as a

leaf, may be divided.

Sepal.= A calyx leaf.

Serrate.= With teeth inclining forward.

Serrulate.= With small teeth inclining forward.

Sessile.= Not stalked, as when the leaf blade or flower rests directly

upon the twig.

Simple leaf.= Not compound, having one blade not jointed with its stem.

Sinuate.= Strongly wavy-margined.

Sinus.= Interval between two lobes or divisions of a leaf; sometimes

sharp-angular, sometimes rounded.

Spatulate.= Gradually narrowed downward from a rounded summit.

Spike.= A cluster of sessile or nearly sessile lateral flowers on an

elongated axis.

Spray.= The smaller branches and ultimate branchlets of a tree taken as

a whole.

Stamens.= The pollen-bearing organs of a flower, each stamen consisting

of a filament (stem) and anther which contains the pollen.

Staminate.= Having stamens.

Sterile.= Variously applied: to flowers with stamens only; to stamens

without anthers; to anthers without pollen; to ovaries not producing

seed, etc.

Stigma.= Part of pistil which receives the pollen.

Stipels.= Appendages to a leaflet, analogous to the stipules of a leaf.

Stipules.= Appendages of a leaf, usually at the point of insertion.

Striate.= Streaked, or very finely ridged lengthwise.

Style.= Part of pistil uniting ovary with stigma; often wanting.

Sucker.= A shoot of subterranean origin.

Suture.= The line of union between parts which have grown together;

most often used with reference to the line along which an ovary opens.

Terete.= Cylindrical.

Ternate.= In threes.

Tomentose.= Densely pubescent or woolly.

Truncate.= As if cut off at the end.

Umbel.= An inflorescence in which the flower stems spring from the same

point like the rays of an umbrella.

Verticillate.= Arranged in a circle round an axis; whorled.

Villose= or =villous.= With long, soft hairs.

Whorl.= Arranged in a circle about an axis.

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