Chestnut Oak Rock Chestnut Oak
=Habitat and Range.=--Woods, rocky banks, hill slopes.
Along the Canadian shore of Lake Erie.
Maine,--Saco river and Mt. Agamenticus, near the southern coast (York
county); New Hampshire,--belts or patches in the eastern part of the
state and along the southern border, Hinsdale, Winchester, Brookline,
Manchester, Hudson; Vermont,--western part of the state throughout, not
common; abundant at Smoke mountain at an altitude of 1300 feet, and
along the western flank of the Green mountains, at least in Addison
county; Massachusetts,--eastern sections, Sterling, Lancaster, Russell,
Middleboro, rare in Medford and Sudbury, frequent on the Blue hills;
Rhode Island,--locally common; Connecticut,--common.
South to Delaware and along the mountains to Georgia, extending
nearly to the summit of Mt. Pisgah in North Carolina; west to
Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama.
=Habit.=--A small or medium-sized tree, 25-50 feet high, with a trunk
diameter of 1-2-1/2 feet, assuming noble proportions southward, often
reaching a height of 75-100 feet and trunk diameter of 5-6 feet; trunk
tall, straight, continuous to the top of the tree, scarcely tapering to
the point of ramification, surmounted by a spacious, open head.
=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and large branches deep gray to dark brown or
blackish, in firm, broad, continuous ridges, with small, close surface
scales; bark of young trees and of branchlets smooth, brown, and more or
less lustrous; season's shoots light brown.
=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate to cylindrical, mostly acute,
brownish. Leaves simple, alternate, 5-8 inches long, 2-5 inches wide,
dark green and smooth above, paler and more or less downy beneath;
outline obovate to oval, undulate-crenate; apex blunt-pointed; base
wedge-shaped, obtuse or slightly rounded, often unequal-sided; veins
straight, parallel, prominent beneath; leafstalk 1/2-1-1/2 inches long;
stipules linear, soon falling.
=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile catkins 2-3 inches long; calyx
5-9-parted, yellow, hairy; divisions oblong, densely pubescent; stamens
5-9; anthers yellow, glabrous: pistillate flowers with hairy scales and
dark red stigmas.
=Fruit.=--Seldom abundant, maturing the first season, variable in size,
on stems usually equal to or shorter than the leaf-stems: cup thin,
hemispheric or somewhat top-shaped, deep; scales small, knobby-thickened
at the base: acorns 3/4-1-1/2 inches long, ovoid-conical, sweet.
=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a light
gravelly or stony soil; rapid-growing and free from disease; more easily
and safely transplanted than most oaks; occasionally offered by
nurserymen, who propagate it from the seed. Its vigorous, clean habit of
growth and handsome foliage should give it a place in landscape
gardening and street use.
1. Winter buds.
2. Flowering branch.
3. Sterile flower, back view.
4. Sterile flower, front view.
5. Fertile flowers.
6. Fruiting branch.
7. Variant leaf.
=Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm.=
Quercus acuminata, Sarg.
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