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Trees Best For Screening

1. Hemlock (_Tsuga canadensis_)

Will stand shearing and will screen in winter as well as in summer.

Plant from 2 to 4 feet apart to form a hedge.

2. Osage orange (_Toxylon pomiferum_)

Very hardy. Plant close.

3. English hawthorn (_Crataegus oxyacantha_)

Flowers beautifully and grows in compact masses. Plant close.

4. Lombardy poplar (_Populus nigra var. italica_)

Forms a tall screen and grows under the most unfavorable conditions.

Plant 8 to 12 feet apart.

Quality of trees: Trees grown in a nursery are preferable for

transplanting to trees grown in the forest. Nursery-grown trees

possess a well-developed root system with numerous fibrous rootlets,

a straight stem, a symmetrical crown, and a well-defined leader.

Trees grown in neighboring nurseries are preferable to those grown

at great distances, because they will be better adapted to local

climatic and soil conditions. The short distances over which they

must be transported also will entail less danger to the roots

through drying. For lawn planting, the branches should reach low to

the ground, while for street purposes the branches should start at

about seven feet from the ground. For street planting, it is also

important that the stem should be perfectly straight and about two

inches in diameter. For woodland planting, the form of the tree is

of minor consideration, though it is well to have the leader well

defined here as well as in the other cases. See Fig. 95.

When and how to procure the trees: The trees should be selected in the

nursery personally. Some persons prefer to seal the more valuable

specimens with leaden seals. Fall is the best time to make the

selection, because at that time one can have a wider choice of

material. Selecting thus early will also prevent delay in delivery

at the time when it is desired to plant.

When to plant: The best time to plant trees is early spring, just before

growth begins, and after the frost is out of the ground. From the

latter part of March to the early part of May is generally the

planting period in the Eastern States.

Where one has to plant both coniferous and deciduous trees, it is

best to get the deciduous in first, and then the conifers.

How to plant: The location of the trees with relation to each other

should be carefully considered. On the lawn, they should be

separated far enough to allow for the full spread of the tree. On

streets, trees should be planted thirty to thirty-five feet apart

and in case of the elm, forty to fifty feet. In woodlands, it is

well to plant as close as six feet apart where small seedlings are

used and about twelve feet apart in the case of trees an inch or

more in diameter. An abundance of good soil (one to two cubic yards)

is essential with each tree where the specimens used are an inch or

two in diameter. A rich mellow loam, such as one finds on the

surface of a well-tilled farm, is the ideal soil. Manure should

never be placed in direct contact with the roots or stem of the


Protection of the roots from drying is the chief precaution to be

observed during the planting process, and for this reason a cloudy

day is preferable to a sunny day for planting. In case of

evergreens, the least exposure of the roots is liable to result

disastrously, even more so than in case of deciduous trees. This is

why evergreens are lifted from the nursery with a ball of soil

around the roots. All bruised roots should be cut off before the

tree is planted, and the crown of the tree of the deciduous species

should be slightly trimmed in order to equalize the loss of roots by

a corresponding decrease in leaf surface.

The tree should be set into the tree hole at the same depth that it

stood in the nursery. Its roots, where there is no ball of soil

around them, should be carefully spread out and good soil should be

worked in carefully with the fingers among the fine rootlets. Every

root fibre is thus brought into close contact with the soil. More

good soil should be added (in layers) and firmly packed about the

roots. The last layer should remain loose so that it may act as a

mulch or as an absorbent of moisture. The tree should then be

thoroughly watered.

After care: During the first season the tree should be watered and the

soil around its base slightly loosened at least once a week,

especially on hot summer days. Where trees are planted on streets,

near the curb, they should also be fastened to stakes and protected

with a wire guard six feet high. See Fig. 95. Wire netting of

1/2-inch mesh and 17 gauge is the most desirable material.

Suggestions for a home or school nursery: Schools, farms, and private

estates may conveniently start a tree nursery on the premises and

raise their own trees. Two-year seedling trees or four-year

transplants are best suited for this purpose. These may be obtained

from several reliable nurseries in various parts of the country that

make a specialty of raising small trees for such purposes. The cost

of such trees should be from three to fifteen dollars per thousand.

The little trees, which range from one to two feet in height, will

be shipped in bundles. Immediately upon arrival, the bundles should

be untied and the trees immersed in a pail containing water mixed

with soil. The bundles should then be placed in the ground

temporarily, until they can be set out in their proper places. In

this process, the individual bundles should be slanted with their

tops toward the south, and the spot chosen should be cool and shady.

At no time should the roots of these plants be exposed, even for a

moment, to sun and wind, and they should always be kept moist. The

little trees may remain in this trench for two weeks without injury.

They should then be planted out in rows, each row one foot apart for

conifers and two feet for broadleaf trees. The individual trees

should be set ten inches apart in the row. Careful weeding and

watering is the necessary attention later on.

Tree Studies

How To Identify Trees
Group I The Pines
The White Pine (pinus Strobus)
The Pitch Pine (pinus Rigida)
The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)
Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock
The Norway Spruce (picea Excelsa)
Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis)
Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae
Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)
Arbor-vitae; Northern White Cedar (thuja Occidentalis)
Group Iv The Larch And Cypress
The European Larch (larix Europaea)
Bald Cypress (taxodium Distichum)
Group V The Horsechestnut, Ash And Maple
The Horsechestnut
The White Ash (fraxinus Americana)
Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum)
Silver Maple (acer Saccharinum)
Red Maple (acer Rubrum)
Norway Maple (acer Platanoides)
Box Elder (acer Negundo)
Group Vi Trees Told By Their Form: Elm, Poplar, Gingko And Willow
American Elm (ulmus Americana)
Lombardy Or Italian Poplar (populus Nigra, Var Italica)
Gingko Or Maidenhair Tree (gingko Biloba)
Weeping Willow (salix Babylonica)
Group Vii Trees Told By Their Bark Or Trunk: Sycamore, Birch, Beech,
Blue Beech, Ironwood, And Hackberry
The Sycamore Or Plane Tree (platanus Occidentalis)
Gray Or White Birch (betula Populifolia)
American Beech (fagus Americana)
Blue Beech Or Hornbeam (carpinus Caroliniana)
Hackberry (celtis Occidentalis)
Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut
White Oak (quercus Alba)
Black Oak (quercus Velutina)
Red Oak (quercus Rubra)
Pin Oak (quercus Palustris)
Chestnut (castanea Dentata)
Group Ix The Hickories, Walnut And Butternut
Shagbark Hickory (hicoria Ovata)
Mockernut Hickory (hicoria Alba)
Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)
Group X Tulip Tree, Sweet Gum, Linden, Magnolia, Locust, Catalpa,
Dogwood, Mulberry And Osage Orange
Tulip Tree (liriodendron Tulipifera)
Sweet Gum (liquidambar Styraciflua)
American Linden (tilia Americana)
The Magnolias