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The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)

Distinguishing characters: There are *two* needles to each cluster, and

these are _short_ compared with those of the white pine, and

_slightly twisted_; see Fig. 6. The _bark_, especially along the

upper portion of the trunk, _is reddish_ in color.

Form and size: A medium-sized tree with a short crown.

Range: Europe, Asia, and eastern United States.

Soil and location: Will do best on a deep, rich, sandy soil, but will

also grow on a dry, porous soil.

Enemies: In Europe the Scotch pine has several insect enemies, but in

America it appears to be free from injury.

Value for planting: Suitable for windbreaks and woodland planting. Many

excellent specimens may also be found in our parks.

Commercial value: In the United States, the wood is chiefly used for

fuel, though slightly used for barrels, boxes, and carpentry. In

Europe, the Scotch pine is an important timber tree.

Comparisons: The Scotch pine is apt to be confused with the _Austrian

pine_ (_Pinus austriaca_), because they both have two needles to

each cluster. The needles of the Austrian pine, however, are much

longer, coarser, straighter, and darker than those of the Scotch

pine; Fig. 1. The form of the Austrian pine, too, is more

symmetrical and compact.

The _red pine_ (_Pinus resinosa_) is another tree that has two

needles to each cluster, but these are much longer than those of the

Scotch pine (five to six inches) and are straighter. The bark, which

is reddish in color, also differentiates the red pine from the

Austrian pine. The position of the cones on the red pine, which

point outward and downward at maturity, will also help to

distinguish this tree from the Scotch and the Austrian varieties.

Tree Studies

How To Identify Trees
Group I The Pines
The White Pine (pinus Strobus)
The Pitch Pine (pinus Rigida)
The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)
Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock
The Norway Spruce (picea Excelsa)
Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis)
Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae
Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)
Arbor-vitae; Northern White Cedar (thuja Occidentalis)
Group Iv The Larch And Cypress
The European Larch (larix Europaea)
Bald Cypress (taxodium Distichum)
Group V The Horsechestnut, Ash And Maple
The Horsechestnut
The White Ash (fraxinus Americana)
Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum)
Silver Maple (acer Saccharinum)
Red Maple (acer Rubrum)
Norway Maple (acer Platanoides)
Box Elder (acer Negundo)
Group Vi Trees Told By Their Form: Elm, Poplar, Gingko And Willow
American Elm (ulmus Americana)
Lombardy Or Italian Poplar (populus Nigra, Var Italica)
Gingko Or Maidenhair Tree (gingko Biloba)
Weeping Willow (salix Babylonica)
Group Vii Trees Told By Their Bark Or Trunk: Sycamore, Birch, Beech,
Blue Beech, Ironwood, And Hackberry
The Sycamore Or Plane Tree (platanus Occidentalis)
Gray Or White Birch (betula Populifolia)
American Beech (fagus Americana)
Blue Beech Or Hornbeam (carpinus Caroliniana)
Hackberry (celtis Occidentalis)
Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut
White Oak (quercus Alba)
Black Oak (quercus Velutina)
Red Oak (quercus Rubra)
Pin Oak (quercus Palustris)
Chestnut (castanea Dentata)
Group Ix The Hickories, Walnut And Butternut
Shagbark Hickory (hicoria Ovata)
Mockernut Hickory (hicoria Alba)
Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)
Group X Tulip Tree, Sweet Gum, Linden, Magnolia, Locust, Catalpa,
Dogwood, Mulberry And Osage Orange
Tulip Tree (liriodendron Tulipifera)
Sweet Gum (liquidambar Styraciflua)
American Linden (tilia Americana)
The Magnolias