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Suggestions For The Safety Of Tree Climbers

1. Before climbing a tree, judge its general condition. The trunk of a

tree that shows age, disease, or wood-destroying insects generally has

its branches in an equally unhealthy condition.

2. The different kinds of wood naturally differ in their strength and

elasticity. The soft and brash woods need greater precautions than the

strong and pliable ones. The wood of all the poplars, the ailanthus, the

silver maple and the chestnut, catalpa and willow is either too soft or

too brittle to be depended upon without special care. The elm, hickory

and oak have strong, flexible woods and are, therefore, safer than

others. The red oak is weaker than the other oaks. The sycamore and

beech have a tough, cross-grained wood which is fairly strong. The

linden has a soft wood, while the ash and gum, though strong and

flexible, are apt to split.

3. Look out for a limb that shows fungous growths. Every fungus sends

fibers into the main body of the limb which draw out its sap. The

interior of the branch then loses its strength and becomes like a

powder. Outside appearances sometimes do not show the interior

condition, but one should regard a fungus as a danger sign.

4. When a limb is full of holes or knots, it generally indicates that

borers have been working all kinds of galleries through it, making it

unsafe. The silver maple and sycamore maple are especially subject to

borers which, in many cases, work on the under side of the branch so

that the man in the tree looking down cannot see its dangerous


5. A dead limb with the bark falling off indicates that it died at least

three months before and is, therefore, less safe than one with its bark

tightly adhering to it.

6. Branches are more apt to snap on a frosty day when they are covered

with an icy coating than on a warm summer day.

7. Always use the pole-saw and pole-shears on the tips of long branches,

and use the pole-hook in removing dead branches of the ailanthus and

other brittle trees where it would be too dangerous to reach them


8. Be sure of the strength of a branch before tying an extension ladder

to it.

Tree Studies

How To Identify Trees
Group I The Pines
The White Pine (pinus Strobus)
The Pitch Pine (pinus Rigida)
The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)
Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock
The Norway Spruce (picea Excelsa)
Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis)
Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae
Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)
Arbor-vitae; Northern White Cedar (thuja Occidentalis)
Group Iv The Larch And Cypress
The European Larch (larix Europaea)
Bald Cypress (taxodium Distichum)
Group V The Horsechestnut, Ash And Maple
The Horsechestnut
The White Ash (fraxinus Americana)
Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum)
Silver Maple (acer Saccharinum)
Red Maple (acer Rubrum)
Norway Maple (acer Platanoides)
Box Elder (acer Negundo)
Group Vi Trees Told By Their Form: Elm, Poplar, Gingko And Willow
American Elm (ulmus Americana)
Lombardy Or Italian Poplar (populus Nigra, Var Italica)
Gingko Or Maidenhair Tree (gingko Biloba)
Weeping Willow (salix Babylonica)
Group Vii Trees Told By Their Bark Or Trunk: Sycamore, Birch, Beech,
Blue Beech, Ironwood, And Hackberry
The Sycamore Or Plane Tree (platanus Occidentalis)
Gray Or White Birch (betula Populifolia)
American Beech (fagus Americana)
Blue Beech Or Hornbeam (carpinus Caroliniana)
Hackberry (celtis Occidentalis)
Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut
White Oak (quercus Alba)
Black Oak (quercus Velutina)
Red Oak (quercus Rubra)
Pin Oak (quercus Palustris)
Chestnut (castanea Dentata)
Group Ix The Hickories, Walnut And Butternut
Shagbark Hickory (hicoria Ovata)
Mockernut Hickory (hicoria Alba)
Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)
Group X Tulip Tree, Sweet Gum, Linden, Magnolia, Locust, Catalpa,
Dogwood, Mulberry And Osage Orange
Tulip Tree (liriodendron Tulipifera)
Sweet Gum (liquidambar Styraciflua)
American Linden (tilia Americana)
The Magnolias