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Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)

Distinguishing characters: The tree can best be told at a glance by its

general form, size and leaves. It is a medium-sized tree with a

_symmetrical, cone-like form_, Fig. 11, which, however, broadens

out somewhat when the tree grows old. Its color throughout the year

is dull green with a tinge of brownish red, and its bark peels in

thin strips.

FIG. 12(a).--Twig of Young Cedar.

FIG. 12(b).--Twig of Cedar (Older Tree).]

Leaf: In young trees the leaf is needle-shaped, pointed, and marked by a

white line on its under side, Fig. 12(a). In older trees it is

scale-like, Fig. 12(b), and the white line on its under side is


Range: Widely distributed over nearly all of eastern and central North


Soil and location: Grows on poor, gravelly soils as well as in rich

bottom lands.

Enemies: The "_cedar apple_," commonly found on this tree, represents a

stage of the apple rust, and for that reason it is not desirable to

plant such trees near orchards. Its wood is also sometimes attacked

by small _boring insects_.

Value for planting: Its characteristic slender form gives the red cedar

an important place as an ornamental tree, but its chief value lies

in its commercial use.

Commercial value: The wood is durable, light, smooth and fragrant, and

is therefore used for making lead-pencils, cabinets, boxes,

moth-proof chests, shingles, posts, and telegraph poles.

Other characters: The _fruit_ is small, round and berry-like, about the

size of a pea, of dark blue color, and carries from one to four bony


Other common names: The red cedar is also often called _juniper_ and

_red juniper_.

Comparisons: The red cedar is apt to be confused with the _low juniper_

(_Juniperus communis_) which grows in open fields all over the

world. The latter, however, is generally of a low form with a flat

top. Its leaves are pointed and prickly, never scale-like, and they

are whitish above and green below. Its bark shreds and its fruit is

a small round berry of agreeable aromatic odor.

Tree Studies

How To Identify Trees
Group I The Pines
The White Pine (pinus Strobus)
The Pitch Pine (pinus Rigida)
The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)
Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock
The Norway Spruce (picea Excelsa)
Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis)
Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae
Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)
Arbor-vitae; Northern White Cedar (thuja Occidentalis)
Group Iv The Larch And Cypress
The European Larch (larix Europaea)
Bald Cypress (taxodium Distichum)
Group V The Horsechestnut, Ash And Maple
The Horsechestnut
The White Ash (fraxinus Americana)
Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum)
Silver Maple (acer Saccharinum)
Red Maple (acer Rubrum)
Norway Maple (acer Platanoides)
Box Elder (acer Negundo)
Group Vi Trees Told By Their Form: Elm, Poplar, Gingko And Willow
American Elm (ulmus Americana)
Lombardy Or Italian Poplar (populus Nigra, Var Italica)
Gingko Or Maidenhair Tree (gingko Biloba)
Weeping Willow (salix Babylonica)
Group Vii Trees Told By Their Bark Or Trunk: Sycamore, Birch, Beech,
Blue Beech, Ironwood, And Hackberry
The Sycamore Or Plane Tree (platanus Occidentalis)
Gray Or White Birch (betula Populifolia)
American Beech (fagus Americana)
Blue Beech Or Hornbeam (carpinus Caroliniana)
Hackberry (celtis Occidentalis)
Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut
White Oak (quercus Alba)
Black Oak (quercus Velutina)
Red Oak (quercus Rubra)
Pin Oak (quercus Palustris)
Chestnut (castanea Dentata)
Group Ix The Hickories, Walnut And Butternut
Shagbark Hickory (hicoria Ovata)
Mockernut Hickory (hicoria Alba)
Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)
Group X Tulip Tree, Sweet Gum, Linden, Magnolia, Locust, Catalpa,
Dogwood, Mulberry And Osage Orange
Tulip Tree (liriodendron Tulipifera)
Sweet Gum (liquidambar Styraciflua)
American Linden (tilia Americana)
The Magnolias