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Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut




How to tell them from other trees: The oaks are rather difficult to

identify and, in studying them it will often be necessary to look

for more than one distinguishing character. The oaks differ from

other trees in bearing _acorns_. Their _leaves_ have many lobes and

their upper lateral _buds_ cluster at the top of the twigs. The

general contour of each oak presents a characteristic branching and

sturdiness uncommon in other trees.



The chestnut differs from other trees in bearing _burs_ and its

_bark_ is also distinctly characteristic.



How to tell them from each other: There are two groups of oaks, the

_white oak_ and the _black oak_. The white oaks mature their acorns

in one year and, therefore, only acorns of the same year can be

found on trees of this group. The black oaks take two years in which

to mature their acorns and, therefore, young acorns of the present

year and mature acorns of the previous year may be found on the same

tree at one time. The _leaves_ of the white oaks have rounded

margins and rounded lobes as in Fig. 57, while those of the black

oaks have pointed margins and sharp pointed lobes as shown in Figs.

60, 62 and 64. The _bark_ of the white oaks is light colored and

breaks up in loose flakes as in Fig. 58, while that of the black

oaks is darker and deeply ridged or tight as in Figs. 59 and 61. The

white oak is the type of the white oak group and the black, red and

pin oaks are types of the other. For the characterization of the

individual species, the reader is referred to the following pages.







Tree Studies


How To Identify Trees
Group I The Pines
The White Pine (pinus Strobus)
The Pitch Pine (pinus Rigida)
The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)
Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock
The Norway Spruce (picea Excelsa)
Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis)
Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae
Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)
Arbor-vitae; Northern White Cedar (thuja Occidentalis)
Group Iv The Larch And Cypress
The European Larch (larix Europaea)
Bald Cypress (taxodium Distichum)
Group V The Horsechestnut, Ash And Maple
The Horsechestnut
The White Ash (fraxinus Americana)
Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum)
Silver Maple (acer Saccharinum)
Red Maple (acer Rubrum)
Norway Maple (acer Platanoides)
Box Elder (acer Negundo)
Group Vi Trees Told By Their Form: Elm, Poplar, Gingko And Willow
American Elm (ulmus Americana)
Lombardy Or Italian Poplar (populus Nigra, Var Italica)
Gingko Or Maidenhair Tree (gingko Biloba)
Weeping Willow (salix Babylonica)
Group Vii Trees Told By Their Bark Or Trunk: Sycamore, Birch, Beech,
Blue Beech, Ironwood, And Hackberry
The Sycamore Or Plane Tree (platanus Occidentalis)
Gray Or White Birch (betula Populifolia)
American Beech (fagus Americana)
Blue Beech Or Hornbeam (carpinus Caroliniana)
Hackberry (celtis Occidentalis)
Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut
White Oak (quercus Alba)
Black Oak (quercus Velutina)
Red Oak (quercus Rubra)
Pin Oak (quercus Palustris)
Chestnut (castanea Dentata)
Group Ix The Hickories, Walnut And Butternut
Shagbark Hickory (hicoria Ovata)
Mockernut Hickory (hicoria Alba)
Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)
Group X Tulip Tree, Sweet Gum, Linden, Magnolia, Locust, Catalpa,
Dogwood, Mulberry And Osage Orange
Tulip Tree (liriodendron Tulipifera)
Sweet Gum (liquidambar Styraciflua)
American Linden (tilia Americana)
The Magnolias