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Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae

How to tell them from other trees: The red cedar (juniper) and

arbor-vitae may be told from other trees by their _leaves_, which

remain on the tree and keep green throughout the entire year. These

leaves differ from those of the other evergreens in being much

shorter and of a distinctive shape as shown in Figs. 12 and 13. The

trees themselves are much smaller than the other evergreens

enumerated in this book. Altogether, there are thirty-five species

of juniper recognized and four of arbor-vitae. The junipers are

widely distributed over the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic

region down to Mexico in the New World, and in northern Africa,

China, and Japan in the Old World. The arbor-vitae is found in

northeastern and northwestern America, China, and Japan. The species

mentioned here are those commonly found in America.

How to tell them from each other: The _twigs_ of the arbor-vitae are

_flat and fan-like_ as in Fig. 13; the twigs of the red cedar are

_needle-shaped or scale-like_ as in Fig. 12. The foliage of the

arbor-vitae is of a lighter color than that of the red cedar, which

is sombre green. The arbor-vitae will generally be found growing in

moist locations, while the red cedar will grow in dry places as

well. The arbor-vitae generally retains its lower branches in open

places, while the branches of the red cedar start at some distance

from the ground.

Tree Studies

How To Identify Trees
Group I The Pines
The White Pine (pinus Strobus)
The Pitch Pine (pinus Rigida)
The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)
Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock
The Norway Spruce (picea Excelsa)
Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis)
Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae
Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)
Arbor-vitae; Northern White Cedar (thuja Occidentalis)
Group Iv The Larch And Cypress
The European Larch (larix Europaea)
Bald Cypress (taxodium Distichum)
Group V The Horsechestnut, Ash And Maple
The Horsechestnut
The White Ash (fraxinus Americana)
Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum)
Silver Maple (acer Saccharinum)
Red Maple (acer Rubrum)
Norway Maple (acer Platanoides)
Box Elder (acer Negundo)
Group Vi Trees Told By Their Form: Elm, Poplar, Gingko And Willow
American Elm (ulmus Americana)
Lombardy Or Italian Poplar (populus Nigra, Var Italica)
Gingko Or Maidenhair Tree (gingko Biloba)
Weeping Willow (salix Babylonica)
Group Vii Trees Told By Their Bark Or Trunk: Sycamore, Birch, Beech,
Blue Beech, Ironwood, And Hackberry
The Sycamore Or Plane Tree (platanus Occidentalis)
Gray Or White Birch (betula Populifolia)
American Beech (fagus Americana)
Blue Beech Or Hornbeam (carpinus Caroliniana)
Hackberry (celtis Occidentalis)
Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut
White Oak (quercus Alba)
Black Oak (quercus Velutina)
Red Oak (quercus Rubra)
Pin Oak (quercus Palustris)
Chestnut (castanea Dentata)
Group Ix The Hickories, Walnut And Butternut
Shagbark Hickory (hicoria Ovata)
Mockernut Hickory (hicoria Alba)
Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)
Group X Tulip Tree, Sweet Gum, Linden, Magnolia, Locust, Catalpa,
Dogwood, Mulberry And Osage Orange
Tulip Tree (liriodendron Tulipifera)
Sweet Gum (liquidambar Styraciflua)
American Linden (tilia Americana)
The Magnolias