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Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock

How to tell them from other trees: The spruce and hemlock belong to the

evergreen class and may be told from the other trees by their

_leaves_. The characteristic leaves of the spruce are shown in Fig.

9; those of the hemlock in Fig. 10. These are much shorter than the

needles of the pines but are longer than the leaves of the red cedar

or arbor vitae. They are neither arranged in clusters like those of

the larch, nor in feathery layers like those of the cypress. They

adhere to the tree throughout the year, while the leaves of the

larch and cypress shed in the fall.

The spruces are pyramidal-shaped trees, with tall and tapering

trunks, thickly covered with branches, forming a compact crown. They

are widely distributed throughout the cold and temperate regions of

the northern hemisphere, where they often form thick forests over

extended areas.

There are eighteen recognized species of spruce. The Norway spruce

has been chosen as a type for this group because it is so commonly

planted in the northeastern part of the United States.

The hemlock is represented by seven species, confined to temperate

North America, Japan, and Central and Western China.

How to tell them from each other: The needles and branches of the spruce

are _coarse_; those of the hemlock are _flat and graceful_. The

individual leaves of the spruce, Fig. 9, are four-sided and green or

blue on the under side, while those of the hemlock, Fig. 10, are

flat and are _marked by two white lines_ on the under side.

Tree Studies

How To Identify Trees
Group I The Pines
The White Pine (pinus Strobus)
The Pitch Pine (pinus Rigida)
The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)
Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock
The Norway Spruce (picea Excelsa)
Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis)
Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae
Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)
Arbor-vitae; Northern White Cedar (thuja Occidentalis)
Group Iv The Larch And Cypress
The European Larch (larix Europaea)
Bald Cypress (taxodium Distichum)
Group V The Horsechestnut, Ash And Maple
The Horsechestnut
The White Ash (fraxinus Americana)
Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum)
Silver Maple (acer Saccharinum)
Red Maple (acer Rubrum)
Norway Maple (acer Platanoides)
Box Elder (acer Negundo)
Group Vi Trees Told By Their Form: Elm, Poplar, Gingko And Willow
American Elm (ulmus Americana)
Lombardy Or Italian Poplar (populus Nigra, Var Italica)
Gingko Or Maidenhair Tree (gingko Biloba)
Weeping Willow (salix Babylonica)
Group Vii Trees Told By Their Bark Or Trunk: Sycamore, Birch, Beech,
Blue Beech, Ironwood, And Hackberry
The Sycamore Or Plane Tree (platanus Occidentalis)
Gray Or White Birch (betula Populifolia)
American Beech (fagus Americana)
Blue Beech Or Hornbeam (carpinus Caroliniana)
Hackberry (celtis Occidentalis)
Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut
White Oak (quercus Alba)
Black Oak (quercus Velutina)
Red Oak (quercus Rubra)
Pin Oak (quercus Palustris)
Chestnut (castanea Dentata)
Group Ix The Hickories, Walnut And Butternut
Shagbark Hickory (hicoria Ovata)
Mockernut Hickory (hicoria Alba)
Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)
Group X Tulip Tree, Sweet Gum, Linden, Magnolia, Locust, Catalpa,
Dogwood, Mulberry And Osage Orange
Tulip Tree (liriodendron Tulipifera)
Sweet Gum (liquidambar Styraciflua)
American Linden (tilia Americana)
The Magnolias