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Group I The Pines

How to tell them from other trees: The pines belong to the _coniferous_

class of trees; that is, trees which bear cones. The pines may be

told from the other coniferous trees by their leaves, which are in

the form of _needles_ two inches or more in length. These needles

keep green throughout the entire year. This is characteristic of all

coniferous trees, except the larch and cypress, which shed their

leaves in winter.

The pines are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere,

and include about 80 distinct species with over 60 varieties. The

species enumerated here are especially common in the eastern part of

the United states, growing either native in the forest or under

cultivation in the parks. The pines form a very important class of

timber trees, and produce beautiful effects when planted in groups

in the parks.

How to tell them from each other: The pine needles are arranged in

_clusters_; see Fig. 1. Each species has a certain characteristic

number of needles to the cluster and this fact generally provides

the simplest and most direct way of distinguishing the different


In the white pine there are _five_ needles to each cluster, in the

pitch pine _three_, and in the Scotch pine _two_. The Austrian pine

also has two needles to the cluster, but the difference in size and

character of the needles will distinguish this species from the

Scotch pine.

Tree Studies

How To Identify Trees
Group I The Pines
The White Pine (pinus Strobus)
The Pitch Pine (pinus Rigida)
The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)
Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock
The Norway Spruce (picea Excelsa)
Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis)
Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae
Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)
Arbor-vitae; Northern White Cedar (thuja Occidentalis)
Group Iv The Larch And Cypress
The European Larch (larix Europaea)
Bald Cypress (taxodium Distichum)
Group V The Horsechestnut, Ash And Maple
The Horsechestnut
The White Ash (fraxinus Americana)
Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum)
Silver Maple (acer Saccharinum)
Red Maple (acer Rubrum)
Norway Maple (acer Platanoides)
Box Elder (acer Negundo)
Group Vi Trees Told By Their Form: Elm, Poplar, Gingko And Willow
American Elm (ulmus Americana)
Lombardy Or Italian Poplar (populus Nigra, Var Italica)
Gingko Or Maidenhair Tree (gingko Biloba)
Weeping Willow (salix Babylonica)
Group Vii Trees Told By Their Bark Or Trunk: Sycamore, Birch, Beech,
Blue Beech, Ironwood, And Hackberry
The Sycamore Or Plane Tree (platanus Occidentalis)
Gray Or White Birch (betula Populifolia)
American Beech (fagus Americana)
Blue Beech Or Hornbeam (carpinus Caroliniana)
Hackberry (celtis Occidentalis)
Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut
White Oak (quercus Alba)
Black Oak (quercus Velutina)
Red Oak (quercus Rubra)
Pin Oak (quercus Palustris)
Chestnut (castanea Dentata)
Group Ix The Hickories, Walnut And Butternut
Shagbark Hickory (hicoria Ovata)
Mockernut Hickory (hicoria Alba)
Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)
Group X Tulip Tree, Sweet Gum, Linden, Magnolia, Locust, Catalpa,
Dogwood, Mulberry And Osage Orange
Tulip Tree (liriodendron Tulipifera)
Sweet Gum (liquidambar Styraciflua)
American Linden (tilia Americana)
The Magnolias