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Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)

Distinguishing characters: By cutting a twig lengthwise, it will be seen

that its *pith* is divided into little _chambers_ as shown in Fig.

71. The bud is dark gray and satiny. The bark is dark brown and

deeply ridged and the fruit is the familiar round walnut.

Form and size: A tall tree with a spreading crown composed of stout

branches. In the open it grows very symmetrically.

Range: Eastern United States.

Soil and location: The black walnut prefers a deep, rich, fertile soil

and requires a great deal of light.

Enemies: The tree is a favorite of many caterpillars.

Value for planting: It forms a beautiful spreading tree on open ground,

but is not planted to any extent because it is hard to transplant.

It grows slowly unless the soil is very deep and rich, develops its

leaves late in the spring and sheds them early in the fall and

produces its fruit in great profusion.

Commercial value: The wood is heavy, strong, of chocolate brown color

and capable of taking a fine polish. It is used for cabinet making

and interior finish of houses. The older the tree, usually, the

better the wood, and the consumption of the species in the past has

been so heavy that it is becoming rare. The European varieties which

are frequently planted in America as substitutes for the native

species yield better nuts, but the American species produces better


chambers in the pith.]

in the pith.]

Other characters: The _fruit_ is a large round nut about two inches in

diameter, covered with a smooth husk which at first is dull green

in color and later turns brown. The husk does not separate into

sections. The kernel is edible and produces an oil of commercial


The _leaves_ are compound and alternate with 15 to 23 leaflets to


Comparisons: The _butternut_ (_Juglans cinerea_) is another tree that

has the pith divided into little chambers, but the little chambers

here are shorter than in the black walnut, as may be seen from a

comparison of Figs. 71 and 72. The bark of the butternut is light

gray while that of the black walnut is dark. The buds in the

butternut are longer than those of the black walnut and are light

brown instead of gray in color. The form of the tree is low and

spreading as compared with the black walnut. The fruit in the

butternut is elongated while that of the black walnut is round. The

leaves of the butternut have fewer leaflets and these are lighter in


Tree Studies

How To Identify Trees
Group I The Pines
The White Pine (pinus Strobus)
The Pitch Pine (pinus Rigida)
The Scotch Pine (pinus Sylvestris)
Group Ii The Spruce And Hemlock
The Norway Spruce (picea Excelsa)
Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis)
Group Iii The Red Cedar And Arbor-vitae
Red Cedar (juniperus Virginiana)
Arbor-vitae; Northern White Cedar (thuja Occidentalis)
Group Iv The Larch And Cypress
The European Larch (larix Europaea)
Bald Cypress (taxodium Distichum)
Group V The Horsechestnut, Ash And Maple
The Horsechestnut
The White Ash (fraxinus Americana)
Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum)
Silver Maple (acer Saccharinum)
Red Maple (acer Rubrum)
Norway Maple (acer Platanoides)
Box Elder (acer Negundo)
Group Vi Trees Told By Their Form: Elm, Poplar, Gingko And Willow
American Elm (ulmus Americana)
Lombardy Or Italian Poplar (populus Nigra, Var Italica)
Gingko Or Maidenhair Tree (gingko Biloba)
Weeping Willow (salix Babylonica)
Group Vii Trees Told By Their Bark Or Trunk: Sycamore, Birch, Beech,
Blue Beech, Ironwood, And Hackberry
The Sycamore Or Plane Tree (platanus Occidentalis)
Gray Or White Birch (betula Populifolia)
American Beech (fagus Americana)
Blue Beech Or Hornbeam (carpinus Caroliniana)
Hackberry (celtis Occidentalis)
Group Viii The Oaks And Chestnut
White Oak (quercus Alba)
Black Oak (quercus Velutina)
Red Oak (quercus Rubra)
Pin Oak (quercus Palustris)
Chestnut (castanea Dentata)
Group Ix The Hickories, Walnut And Butternut
Shagbark Hickory (hicoria Ovata)
Mockernut Hickory (hicoria Alba)
Black Walnut (juglans Nigra)
Group X Tulip Tree, Sweet Gum, Linden, Magnolia, Locust, Catalpa,
Dogwood, Mulberry And Osage Orange
Tulip Tree (liriodendron Tulipifera)
Sweet Gum (liquidambar Styraciflua)
American Linden (tilia Americana)
The Magnolias